Contoh Pengertian Tujuan Ciri Descriptive Text

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Contoh Pengertian Tujuan Ciri Descriptive Text – Descriptive Text merupakan jenis teks yang banyak digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dalam menggambarkan benda, tempat, manusia, hewan dan lain sebagainya.

Descriptive text diartikan sebagai sebuah teks bahasa Inggris untuk mengggmbarkan seperti apa benda atau mahluk hidup yang kita deskripsikan, baik secara kenampakan, bau, suara, tekstur, jumlah, maupan sifat-sifatnya dari benda atau makhluk hidup tersebut.

Descriptive text tidak membutuhkan informasi detail misalkan dari hasil penelitian atau observasi mendalam dalam mendeskripsikan sesuatu. Melainkan, descriptive text lebih ke menggambarkan apa kita lihat, dengar, dan rasakan pada sesuatu yang kita ingin deskripsikan.

Pengertian Descriptive Text

Descriptive atau dalam Bahasa Indonesia disebut ‘deskriptif’ merupakan kata sifat yang mempunyai arti ‘gambaran’. Sedangkan text atau ‘teks’ memiliki arti tulisan. Jadi, Descriptive Text is a text which describe something, such as person, animal, thing, or place, in a detailed. Artinya, teks deskriptif (Descriptive Text) merupakan sebuah teks yang menggambarkan sesuatu, seperti orang, hewan, benda, atau tempat, secara mendetail atau secara lengkap. Kata mendeskripsikan disini berarti menyebutkan sifat – sifat atau karakteristik dari sesuatu yang akan kita deskripsikan tersebut.

Tujuan /Purpose Kebahasaan Descriptive Text

Tujuan kebahasaan dari descriptive text adalah adalah untuk menggambarkan dan mengungkapkan ciri-ciri dari benda, tempat, atau mahluk tertentu secara umum dan sederhana, tenpa adanya riset atau peneilitan secara mendalam dan menyuluruh.

Struktur Kebahasaan Descriptive Text

Di setiap contoh descriptive text, terdapat dua bagian yang menjadi ciri khas struktur kebahasaan dari descriptive text. Kedua bagian tersebut adalah:

1. Identification

Idnetification adalah bagian dari Descriptive Text yang berisi tentang topik atau “apa” yang akan digambarkan atau dideskripsikan.

2. Description

Description adalah bagian terakhir dari Descriptive Text yang berisi tentang pembahasan atau penggambaran tentang topik atau “apa” yang ada di Identification mengenai kenampakan fisik, kualitas, perilaku umum maupun sifat-sifatnya.

Ciri Kebahasaan Descriptive Text

Dalam descriptive text, terdapat ciri-ciri kebahasaan yang membedakan dengan jenis teks lainnya. Ciri-ciri kehbahasaan tersebut adalah seperti berikut:

  • Menggunakan simpel present tense. Misalnya: He has a pointed nose; It is so big; etc.
  • Menggunakan berbagai macam adjectives (kata sifat) yang bersifat menggambarkan (describing), menomerkan (numbering) dan mengklasifikasikan (classifying). Misalnya: wo strong legs, sharp white fangs, etc.
  • Menggunakan linking verb (kata kerja penghubung) seperti; is, are, appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, dan turn. Misalnya: He is handsome; It smell nice; The song sounds beautiful; etc.
  • Menggunakan Adverbs (kata keterangan) untuk memberikan informasi tambahan mengenai perilaku atau sifat (Adjective) yang dijelaskan, seperti: very, extremely, definitely. Misalkan: He is very handsome; The song sounds exteremely beautiful; etc.
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Contoh Descriptive Text

Untuk menambah pemahaman anda mengenai penjelasan Descriptive Text di atas, penulis sertakan juga contoh descriptive text dengan terjemahannya berikut ini:


My Beloved Mother

Every people certainly have a mother. It is because people are born from her.  The existence of her among us is definitely important. That is why I love her so much. I owe great debt to what she has been doing to me until right now. And here is my mother.

My mother’s name is Khodijah. She was born 49 years ago. She is short, but not too short. She is little fat. And she is old. She has got short white straight hair. She has got brown skin. She is beautiful. Her hand is so soft, the hand that have taught me to be kind person.

She never stops to support me. She always tells me to not give up so easily. She always gives me some fine solutions when I have some problems. The importance of her is never denied. That is why I never reject her willing.


Ibuku Tercinta

Setiap manusia pastinya memiliki seorang ibu. Karena manusia lahir darinya. Kehadirannya diantara kita sungguh sangat penting. Itu lah mengapa saya sangat mencitainya. Saya berhutang banyak pada apa yang dia lakukan sampai sekarang ini. Dan inilah ibu saya.

Ibu saya bernama Khodijah. Beliau lahir 49 tahun yang lalu. Beliau pendek, tetapi tidak begitu pendek. Beliau sedikit gemuk. Dan beliau sudah tua. Beliau memiliki rambut putih pendek yang lurus. Beliau memiliki kulit coklat. Beliau cantik. Tanganya begitu lembut, tangat yang telah mengajarkan saya untuk menjadi orang yang baik.

Beliau tidak pernah berhenti mendukung saya. Beliau selau memberitahu saya untuk tidak menyerah dengan gampang. Beliau selalu memberi saya beberapa solusi bijak ketika saya menghadapi beberapa masalah. Pentingya beliau tidak pernah terelaknya. Itu lah mengapa saya tidak pernah menolak keinginannya.

Descriptive Text of Scorpion

Tulisan di bawah mendeskripsikan tentang karakteristik kalajengking, tempat tinggal kalajengking, ukuran, dll. Deskripsi di bawah diambil dari buku The History of Insects.


This is one of the largest of the insect tribe. It is met with in different countries, and of various sizes, from two or three inches to nearly a foot in length: it somewhat resembles a lobster, and casts its skin, as the lobster does its shell.
Scorpions are common in hot countries: they are very bold and watchful: when any thing approaches, they erect their tails, and stand ready to inflict the direful sting. In some parts of Italy and France, they are among the greatest pests that plague mankind: they are very numerous, and are most common in old houses, in dry or decayed walls, and among furniture, insomuch that it is attended with, much danger to remove the same: their sting is generally a very deadly poison, though not in all cases, owing to a difference of malignity of different animals, or some other cause.
In the time of the children of Israel, scorpions were a plague in Egypt and Canaan, as appears by the sacred writings.

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Descriptive Text of Honey Bee

Tulisan yang diambil dari buku The History of Insects ini, menceritakan tentang karakteristik dari lebah madu,seperti jenis-jenis lebah madu.

Honey Bee

This is an extraordinary, curious, and remarkably industrious little insect, to which mankind are indebted for one of the most palatable and wholesome sweets which nature affords; and which was one of the choice articles with which the promised land was said to abound.
In every hive of bees, there are three kinds; the queen, the drones, and the labourers: of these last, there are by far the greatest number: and as cold weather approaches, they drive from the hives and destroy the drones, that have not laboured in summer, and will not let them eat in winter.
If bees are examined through a glass hive, all appears at first like confusion: but, on a more careful inspection, every animal is found regularly employed. It is very delightful, when the maple and other trees are in bloom, or the clover in the meadows, to be abroad and hear their busy hum.

The Polar Bear

Tulisan yang diambil dari buku Book about Animals by Rufus Merrill ini, bercerita tentang sifat-sifat beruang kutub, seperti tempat tinggalnya, makanannya, dll.

The Polar Bear

The Polar Bear is distinguished for his tremendous ferocity. They are very numerous in the polar seas. There it is seen not only on land and fixed ice, but on floating ice several leagues out at sea.
At sea, the food of this animal is fish, seals, and the carcases of whales; on land, it preys upon deer and other animals, and will, like the Black Bear, eat many kinds of berries. In winter, it beds itself deeply under the snow or eminences of ice, and awaits, in a torpid state, the return of the sun.
The Black Bear lives in the woods of the United States, and is not as large as the Polar or Brown Bear, but lives very much like the Polar bear.

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Descriptive Text of Ourang Outang

Tulisan tentang orangutan ini diambil dari buku Book about Animals by Rufus Merrill. Tulisan ini mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri orangutan seperti tinggi badan, ukuran tangan dan kaki, dll.


The Ourang Outang is a species of the ape; it has long arms and hands, with very long fingers. It is much larger than the ape, and some have been found about six feet high, when standing erect.
It is capable of walking nearly erect; but the usual gait on the ground is like a cripple who supports himself on his hands, and draws his body forward.
Its home, like the monkey family, seems to be on the trees. The hair is of a brownish red color, and covers his back, arms, legs, and the outside of his hands and feet.
The face has no hair except whiskers on its side. He inhabits Malacca, Cochin China, and particularly the island of Borneo.

Descriptive Text of Gemini

Tulisan berikut merupakan deskripsi dari rasi bintang Gemini, yang diambil dari buku A Field Book of the Stars by William Tyler Olcott.

GEMINI (jem´-i-ni)—THE TWINS. (Face West.)

Location.—A line drawn from β to κ Ursæ Majoris and prolonged an equal distance ends near Castor, in Gemini. Gemini is characterized by two nearly parallel rows of stars.
The northern row if extended would reach Taurus, the southern one Orion. Note the fine cluster 35 M. Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781 a short distance southwest of it.
Two wonderful streams of little stars run parallel northwest on each side of the cluster. Where the ecliptic crosses the solstitial colure is the spot where the sun appears to be when it is farthest north of the equator, June 21st.
Castor is a fine double for a telescope, and Pollux has three little attendant stars. An isoceles triangle is formed by Castor, Aldebaran in Taurus, and Capella in Auriga.
There is a record of an occultation in Gemini noted about the middle of the fourth century b.c.
The Arabs saw in this group of stars two peacocks, the Egyptians two sprouting plants, and the Hindus twin deities, while in the Buddhist zodiac they represented a woman holding a golden cord. Since classic times, however, the figure has always been that of human twins.
At the point indicated near θ a new star was discovered by Enebo in March, 1912. It attained a maximum of about magnitude 3.5 and has at this writing waned to the eleventh magnitude.

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